Saturday, March 31, 2018

What is Chromite

Chromite is an oxide mineral. The main composition of Chromite is chromium along with iron and oxygen. It is the only ore of Chromium. The color of chromite varies from grey to black  and has a sub-metallic lustre with a high specific gravity. Chromite is relatively hard and metallic. It is found in basic and ultra-basic igneous rocks or metamorphic rocks and even sedimentary rocks. Their occurrence is a result of altering of these rocks by heat or weathering.

Being the only ore of chromium, chromite is highly used in the production of stainless steel, nichrome and chrome plating. Given it's high heat stability, it is also used as a refractory material. 

Friday, March 30, 2018

Expansion of Idea - Say No To Plastic

The usage of plastic has been one of the major cause of concern. Recently government came up with severe resolutions towards ban of plastic bags. It is high time that government take such step towards the use of plastic. We use plastic bags because their use is convenient for us. We can go empty handed for shopping and come loaded with plastic bags. We rarely think how our action can harm the environment. Plastic doesn't cost much, in fact at times they are even free. We have been using plastic for such a long time that we hardly ever realized that by doing so we have been abusing the planet.

Our carelessness has costed the planet. The planet suffers for our deeds which can have severe repercussions on our existence. Most we could do to save our Mother Earth is stop polluting it. And plastic is one such major pollutant. Use of plastic is harmful to nature. Though plastic can be advantageous to us, they also are a disadvantage to our existence. One disadvantage of plastic is that it is non-biodegradable. This means that plastic cannot be decomposed and hence the discarded plastic will keep piling up on the earth's surface. This is a major cause of concern for the environment upkeep. Many animals swallow plastic bags and suffer severe health threats. Plastic bags often get stuck in the sewage openings and cause problems. Plastic bags indirectly contribute to problems during floods. The quality of soil is also deteriorated due to plastic bags.

Government has definitely taken major steps towards ban of plastic bags. But that is not enough! Every individual needs to take firm step towards ban of plastic bags. Everyone has to contribute their bit to ban it. This can only be done when each one of us, stop using plastic bags for shopping or stop accepting plastic bags from vendors. One can carry their own bags made from cloth or jute. Our environment would become a better place to live only if we say no to plastic.

Thursday, March 29, 2018

How To Make A Water Filter

This is a simple activity for kids, that help them learn about water purification process and how it is carried out. This could work as one of the best summer engaging activity for kids, as they not only make the water filter right from scratch, but understand and learn science. The making of water filter with this activity is easy and the kids will have lot of fun making it. The wonders of science can be learned through such simple techniques. The technique is pretty simple and kids can carry on themselves, with adult supervision.

Materials Required For Making a Water Filter


Pet bottle - 1(2 liter capacity)
Gravel
Activated charcoal
Cotton ball
Dirty water

Method for Making a Water Filter


1


With the help of an adult, cut the bottle in half.  Put the bottle upside down resembling a funnel inside the bottom half. This is what the use is - the bottom half would work as the collector of the filtered water and the top half will be where we build the filter.

2


Place a thick layer of cotton ball inside the filter, i.e. the top half of the bottle. Now continue to add one layer of thick crust of activated charcoal on the cotton ball.

3


Place the third layer of gravel on the sand. Lightly shake the filter, so that all the layers are fixed firmly in their place. Your filter is ready.

4


Pour the dirty water through this filter. You can make your own dirty water by adding bits of paper, small leaves, little mud or dirt in the water. Once you pour this dirty water in the filter, wait for the filtration process to happen. Do not pour all the dirty water, but keep some as a specimen which you can compare later with the filtered water.

5


You will soon see that once the water starts moving through all the layers, it gets much cleaner than before.

6


Gather all the filtered water and compare it with the dirty water you have kept. You will notice the difference in both the water.

How it Works


Activated charcoal is often used in the water purification process, mostly in commercial water filters. As the water travels through each layer of the filter, the dirt gets stuck in each layer. The bigger pieces of dirt like paper bits, get stuck on the first layer. The small pieces pass through the first layer but get stuck in the charcoal layer. The cotton ball layer gets rid of the fine dirt and the result you get is the filtered water.

Tip


If you do not have activated charcoal, make use of sand. Add a thick crust of sand instead of charcoal on the cotton ball layer. 

Wednesday, March 28, 2018

What Are Sinuses

If you are suffering from cold and headache for more than 10 to 14 days, then maybe you have an infection of sinus, also know as Sinusitis. Sinus headaches can be too irritating and keep recurring frequently, unless sinusitis is not treated. Sinuses are air-filled spaces within the bones of the head and face that contribute to the upper tract of your respiratory tract from the nose to your throat. The sinuses develop even before one is born. There are four parts of sinuses - one located in the cheeks on either side of your nose, one located in the forehead, one located behind and between our eyes and one located at the back of one's nasal cavity.

What is Sinusitis


Sinusitis is a medical condition in which one suffers from the infection of sinus. The cold virus damages the delicate cilia of one's nose and causes the mucous lining of the nose to swell. Due to this swelling, the narrow opening from the sinuses are blocked causing more and more mucous to produce; which could be harder and stickier, thus making it difficult to flow out of the sinuses. It results in an infection of the sinuses and this condition is referred as Sinusitis.

Sinusitis symptoms include headaches, severe cold, runny nose, blocked nose, congestion, sore throat and facial pain. Sinus headaches can be painful and discomforting. Causes of sinusitis could be anything from pollution, infection, allergy to certain substances such as dust, pollen etc. Individuals suffering from asthma, chronic cold or allergies are more prone to sinusitis.

Acute sinusitis is a short term condition which responds well to antibiotic treatment or recovers on it's own in a matter of few days. But chronic sinusitis on the other hand, could last for many days, even weeks or may keep recurring. Medication course for the same is advisable. Sinusitis is a matter of concern and could cause unnecessary pain and discomfort.

Sinus Surgery


Sinus surgery is a boon to patients suffering from chronic sinusitis.  Mucus is developed by the body and acts as a lubricant that moves across the sinus cavities. Sinusitis swells the mucous membrane thus blocking the mucous movements. When in the cases of sinusitis, antibiotics and other prescribed medical treatment don't work, sinus surgeries are suggested to correct the problem. Endoscopic Sinus Surgery is considered to be safe and perfect solution for the problem of sinusitis. 

Tuesday, March 27, 2018

What are UV Rays

UV Rays or Ultraviolet rays are invisible rays which are part of the solar energy. UV rays help our body to make Vitamin D and hence we are suppose to walk in morning sun. Vitamin D is essential for the strengthening of our bones and teeth. It helps us to build strong immunity against body disorders like Rickets or even colon cancer. UV rays are also used to slow down the growth of skin cells and treat diseases like psoriasis.

Commercial uses of UV rays include disinfection and sterilization. Few animals perceive in ultraviolet and can see things. Animals such as birds, bees and even some fishes can see in ultraviolet. For example by perceiving ultraviolet, bees can collect pollen from flowers. Human eyes can however detect wavelengths only in visual spectrum.

How Harmful is UV Rays?


 UV rays are useful for the ecosystem.  But too much UV rays can be a threat to our existence. UV light is a type of a electromagnetic radiation which is responsible for sun tans and sun burns. The ultraviolet rays have the potential to burn eyes, skin as well as hair if these human parts are not properly protected. Too much exposure to sun affects our skin. Too much UV rays can damage the skin cells and also cause cancer. And hence one should always use a sunscreen when opting to be out in hot sun. Also wearing a hat helps.

The ozone layer in the upper part(Stratosphere) of the atmosphere absorbs UV radiation and thus prevents most of the harmful rays to reach the earth's surface. And hence ozone layer is very important. The depletion of ozone layer is a great matter of concern. 

Monday, March 26, 2018

Expansion of Ideas - Power of One's Imagination

A person's imagination can extend up to great lengths. The power of imagination can be unlimited. God has gifted us the divine power to imagine our wishes, our fantasies and our desires. A dream can be considered as a figment of our own imagination. A dream may consist of our desires or sometimes coincidentally our future.

Basically a person who imagines a world of his own, in their own mind is called a dreamer. A dreamer may consider his imagination as his hobby and may utilize it in his life. For example, let us take the example of the famous author, J. K. Rowling. She can be considered as a 'Professional Dreamer', because it is really difficult to imagine an entire 'Wizardry World'   and then place certain characters and beautiful features in it. J. K. Rowling successfully managed to convert her imagination into a series of book which was an adventure in itself. The world in our imagination is entirely different from reality. The people residing in our imaginary world may look different or may behave different. This is because there are no rules or boundaries in one's imagination.

The philosophical aspect of our imagination is that it totally helps us to identify our wants or the way we wish our world to transform. It is possible for the imaginary world to be total contrast to the laws of nature. Because our imagination doe not obey laws of physics or biology. It obeys the laws of our mind and it's methodology. As a result, people should truly be motivated to imagine and gain a clear understanding of the way our mind works.

Sunday, March 25, 2018

Why Do We Feel Itchy

Our skin is the largest organ that we have, and we put it through several potential irritants knowingly or rather unknowingly. It just happens! With so many pollutants, toxins and irritants in the air, our skin comes in contact with daily. No wonder we are bound to itch. Itch is also known as Pruritus. Itching is a built-in mechanism of our body which alerts us about a potential threat that is bothering us or being harmful to us.

 At times, itching could be nothing much severe, but this won't be the case most of the times. Some type of external stimuli which could include a bug, dust, a clothing fiber or even a hair can trigger itching. Moreover an allergy to certain thing or food or smell can trigger itching. So when external objects such as dust, mosquito or bug land on our skin, they bother it somehow and result into itching. It does not have to start immediately, but the rubbing or an allergy could trigger out itching.

And then there is food allergies which can trigger itching and redness of your skin. A person who is allergic to a particular food, or dust particles can experience severe itching. Once the dust layer scratches your skin area the receptors of the skin will become irritated. These receptors send signal through fibers into the skin to your spinal cord and then to your brain - the result you start itching.

Why do we scratch a itch is really a wonder. Scratching the itch makes us feel better, and that is our first response to the itch. Once we scratch the itch with our finger nails we feel much better and get some relief. Very often scratching helps relieving itch by removing the irritant as soon as possible. When the itching is triggered due to an allergy, we need certain medications to help us solve the problem.

Saturday, March 24, 2018

Character of the Happy Warrior Poem By William Wordsworth

Character of the Happy Warrior


    - By William Wordsworth

 Who is the happy Warrior? Who is he
That every man in arms should wish to be?
—It is the generous Spirit, who, when brought
Among the tasks of real life, hath wrought
Upon the plan that pleased his boyish thought:
Whose high endeavours are an inward light
That makes the path before him always bright;
Who, with a natural instinct to discern
What knowledge can perform, is diligent to learn;
Abides by this resolve, and stops not there,
But makes his moral being his prime care;
Who, doomed to go in company with Pain,
And Fear, and Bloodshed, miserable train!

Turns his necessity to glorious gain;
In face of these doth exercise a power
Which is our human nature's highest dower:
Controls them and subdues, transmutes, bereaves
Of their bad influence, and their good receives:
By objects, which might force the soul to abate
Her feeling, rendered more compassionate;
Is placable—because occasions rise
So often that demand such sacrifice;
More skilful in self-knowledge, even more pure,
As tempted more; more able to endure,
As more exposed to suffering and distress;
Thence, also, more alive to tenderness.


—'Tis he whose law is reason; who depends
Upon that law as on the best of friends;
Whence, in a state where men are tempted still
To evil for a guard against worse ill,
And what in quality or act is best
Doth seldom on a right foundation rest,
He labours good on good to fix, and owes
To virtue every triumph that he knows:
—Who, if he rise to station of command,
Rises by open means; and there will stand
On honourable terms, or else retire,
And in himself possess his own desire;


Who comprehends his trust, and to the same
Keeps faithful with a singleness of aim;
And therefore does not stoop, nor lie in wait
For wealth, or honours, or for worldly state;
Whom they must follow; on whose head must fall,
Like showers of manna, if they come at all:
Whose powers shed round him in the common strife,
Or mild concerns of ordinary life,
A constant influence, a peculiar grace;
But who, if he be called upon to face
Some awful moment to which Heaven has joined
Great issues, good or bad for human kind,
Is happy as a Lover; and attired
With sudden brightness, like a Man inspired;


And, through the heat of conflict, keeps the law
In calmness made, and sees what he foresaw;
Or if an unexpected call succeed,
Come when it will, is equal to the need:
—He who, though thus endued as with a sense
And faculty for storm and turbulence,
Is yet a Soul whose master-bias leans
To homefelt pleasures and to gentle scenes;
Sweet images! which, wheresoe'er he be,
Are at his heart; and such fidelity
It is his darling passion to approve;
More brave for this, that he hath much to love:—
'Tis, finally, the Man, who, lifted high,
Conspicuous object in a Nation's eye,
Or left unthought-of in obscurity,—
Who, with a toward or untoward lot,


Prosperous or adverse, to his wish or not—
Plays, in the many games of life, that one
Where what he most doth value must be won:
Whom neither shape or danger can dismay,
Nor thought of tender happiness betray;
Who, not content that former worth stand fast,
Looks forward, persevering to the last,
From well to better, daily self-surpast:


Who, whether praise of him must walk the earth
For ever, and to noble deeds give birth,
Or he must fall, to sleep without his fame,
And leave a dead unprofitable name—
Finds comfort in himself and in his cause;
And, while the mortal mist is gathering, draws
His breath in confidence of Heaven's applause:
This is the happy Warrior; this is he
That every man in arms should wish to be.

Poem source - Poetry Foundation

Friday, March 23, 2018

Life is Once Lived and Led Poem

A few days ago I stumbled upon this poem.  I have not learnt who had wrote this poem.  But it is such a beautiful poetry that I couldn't keep it away from its audience. Though it doesn't rhyme much,  yet the poem feels beautiful when read.  I do not know the title of this poem,  as it hadn't any.  Simply named it by it's fourth line. The poem just calls out to you.  With its simple lines describing about growing up and living life. The last paragraph of the poem is quite motivational and inspires us to be positive in whatever situation you face in life, as good luck and hope always buzzes around.  So never give up.


Life is Once Lived and Led


    - By Anonymous



A long colorful story,

With happiness and frown buried,

All it can be said,

“Life is once lived and led.”



May friends and family can’t ever forget,

For the one who lives,

The tale goes rapidly.



Childhood the best time ever,

Spent most of it with love and care

Then comes the teenage, 

The time to fly out of the cage.



It ends up with many experiences,

Right time to take responsibilities,

Time to settle and 

Make up for the old age.



Ups and down are its outline,

Which brings amazement,

For be it failure or success,

Luck and hope always buzz around.

Thursday, March 22, 2018

Why Vultures are Not Affected By Eating Rotten Carcasses

If humans were made to consume rotten food, we would definitely fall sick. Even if our food loses some of it's freshness, we could get digestion problems. Most of us suffer problems of food poisoning by eating stale foods, or foods left open for a long time. Not just humans but many animal fall prey to food poisoning. On the other hand, vultures are seen striving on decaying meat and rotten carcasses. And this is what we wonder - how can vultures eat rotten carcasses and still remain unaffected?





First of all, as we know a vulture is a scavenger and eats dead and rotten meat. They contribute tremendously to maintain the balance in the ecosystem by playing this role. It is said that they have this super ability of smelling a rotten carcass from far distances. And they can survive feeding on dead meat. The stomach acid of the vulture is significantly stronger and corrosive - to an extent that it can burn away almost anything. Even the harmful bacteria and other dangerous microbes present inside the rotting meat could be easily destroyed by the stronger stomach of a vulture. Hence even if a vulture feeds on a rotting carcasses which has been badly infected with these dangerous bacteria, the stomach acid would make it a point to kill the bacteria and make the meat safe enough for the vultures to survive on. 

Wednesday, March 21, 2018

What is Curium?

One of the rare metals, curium is radioactive in nature. It is hard, brittle and silvery. It's occurrence is not in nature and hence is a synthetic element. It has to be made in a nuclear reactor. The process of making curium in a nuclear reactor is by neutron capture reactions from plutonium and americium isotopes.

Curium glowing in the dark
Curium was discovered by American Chemist Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James and Albert Ghiorso in 1944 in USA. The metal was named after chemist and physicist Marie Curie and her husband Pierre Curie, who are known to be the pioneers of radioactivity.

One of the property of Curium is that, it tarnishes slowly in dry air at room temperature. Most of it's compounds are faintly yellow. Curium is highly radioactive and glows red in dark. Curium is considered to be dangerous. If curium enters the body it gets accumulated in the bone marrow and with it's radiation starts destroying the marrow and further stops red blood cell formation.

What is Curium used for?


Presently curium is used only for basic scientific research. Curium 244 is a power source in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). It is also used in the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (AXPS) which is used in measuring the abundance of chemical elements and soils on Mars.

Tuesday, March 20, 2018

Importance of Encouraging Curiosity in Children

Children often challenge their parents and teachers with ideas or thoughts that are beyond their understanding. We as parents are exhausted with the countless question attack such as," But, why mom?" or "But how does it grow?" or "What does it mean?" directed towards us by our children. There are times when we don't even know the answer or don't know how to answer some of their questions. Few children can be too curious and answering some of their questions may be too embarrassing for parents. But should that be a reason for a parent to stop attending to a child's curiosity?




Nowadays with the exposure of media and internet, kids know too much for their age and at times could come up with doubts and questions which may have nothing to do with their age. But they just want to know - why, what and how. These why, what and how could be little too much for their age and may be beyond their understanding. But still it is our job as a parent to answer them and nurture their curiosity.

Why is Curiosity Important


Curiosity in kids is often a good thing. Some can be naturally curious about a variety of things. It is said that throughout his life, Einstein wondered about relationships between gravity, space and electromagnetic radiation. The present curriculum most of the schools have today, leaves little scope of arousing curiosity in children. The syllabus and teaching methods implemented, calls for rote-learning. Hence very few kids try to go beyond textbooks and look out for more information on a topic. And hence that should be the reason why parents and teachers should nurture and encourage children's curiosity. The thing is when we encourage our child's curiosity we allow them to grow and become creative. The natural tendency to be curious allows a child be more creative and self-learner. Curiosity stimulates their brain and reasoning abilities.




10 Ways To Encourage Curiosity in Children

1. Parents and teachers can nurture a child's curiosity by supporting and encouraging it. Live experiments, nature walks, science exhibitions, open discussions and group studies help out children to diligently work towards dealing with false hypotheses and coming to their own conclusions.

2. The curriculum should be made such to arouse an intense curiosity among children. This can be done by fragmenting the topic and allowing a child retrace their steps around the topic collecting more data and coming to their own solutions which satiate their hunger.

3. Allow the child to live in their own thoughts to think it through. Do not answer in the first glance and satisfy their curiosity. Instead try and allow them to explain and explore their point of view and thoughts on the same.

4. Be supportive of their curiosity. If you consider your child's thoughts to go in a wrong directions, provide hints here and there, but do not reject his idea all at once.

5. At times, curiosity could lead your child to gain new knowledge or a whole new meaning. It would shape up his thoughts and allow him to learn something new.

6. Supporting your child's interest is the best way to deal with his or her curiosity. For example, if your child wishes to experiment on something, and even though you know that it is going to be messy; yet provide him with the opportunity to conduct the experiment, with a promise that help could be expected from him while cleaning.

7. Open discussions on certain subjects your child is curious about could turn out helpful.

8. At times you may not support an idea that your child finds curious about. But instead of making this point clear to him, if you allow him a chance to realize this on its own it would be a better learning experience for the kid and he would never forget it. This way a child does not feel rejected and at the same time is happy to find the reality of certain situations or things.

9. Engage your kids in activities that can stimulate their curiosity.

10. Curiosity plays an important role in your child's learning and hence never let it dull out. Keep asking questions to your child which allow them to think about a particular topic and come up with answers that encourage their curiosity. 

Monday, March 19, 2018

Resolution and Independence Poem By William Wordsworth

Resolution and Independence


          - By William Wordsworth

There was a roaring in the wind all night;
The rain came heavily and fell in floods;
But now the sun is rising calm and bright;
The birds are singing in the distant woods;
Over his own sweet voice the Stock-dove broods;
The Jay makes answer as the Magpie chatters;
And all the air is filled with pleasant noise of waters.

All things that love the sun are out of doors;
The sky rejoices in the morning's birth;
The grass is bright with rain-drops;—on the moors
The hare is running races in her mirth;
And with her feet she from the plashy earth
Raises a mist, that, glittering in the sun,
Runs with her all the way, wherever she doth run.

I was a Traveller then upon the moor;
I saw the hare that raced about with joy;
I heard the woods and distant waters roar;
Or heard them not, as happy as a boy:
The pleasant season did my heart employ:
My old remembrances went from me wholly;
And all the ways of men, so vain and melancholy.

But, as it sometimes chanceth, from the might
Of joys in minds that can no further go,
As high as we have mounted in delight
In our dejection do we sink as low;
To me that morning did it happen so;
And fears and fancies thick upon me came;
Dim sadness—and blind thoughts, I knew not, nor could name.

I heard the sky-lark warbling in the sky;
And I bethought me of the playful hare:
Even such a happy Child of earth am I;
Even as these blissful creatures do I fare;
Far from the world I walk, and from all care;
But there may come another day to me—
Solitude, pain of heart, distress, and poverty.

My whole life I have lived in pleasant thought,
As if life's business were a summer mood;
As if all needful things would come unsought
To genial faith, still rich in genial good;
But how can He expect that others should
Build for him, sow for him, and at his call
Love him, who for himself will take no heed at all?

I thought of Chatterton, the marvellous Boy,
The sleepless Soul that perished in his pride;
Of Him who walked in glory and in joy
Following his plough, along the mountain-side:
By our own spirits are we deified:
We Poets in our youth begin in gladness;
But thereof come in the end despondency and madness.

Now, whether it were by peculiar grace,
A leading from above, a something given,
Yet it befell that, in this lonely place,
When I with these untoward thoughts had striven,
Beside a pool bare to the eye of heaven
I saw a Man before me unawares:
The oldest man he seemed that ever wore grey hairs.

As a huge stone is sometimes seen to lie
Couched on the bald top of an eminence;
Wonder to all who do the same espy,
By what means it could thither come, and whence;
So that it seems a thing endued with sense:
Like a sea-beast crawled forth, that on a shelf
Of rock or sand reposeth, there to sun itself;

Such seemed this Man, not all alive nor dead,
Nor all asleep—in his extreme old age:
His body was bent double, feet and head
Coming together in life's pilgrimage;
As if some dire constraint of pain, or rage
Of sickness felt by him in times long past,
A more than human weight upon his frame had cast.

Himself he propped, limbs, body, and pale face,
Upon a long grey staff of shaven wood:
And, still as I drew near with gentle pace,
Upon the margin of that moorish flood
Motionless as a cloud the old Man stood,
That heareth not the loud winds when they call,
And moveth all together, if it move at all.

At length, himself unsettling, he the pond
Stirred with his staff, and fixedly did look
Upon the muddy water, which he conned,
As if he had been reading in a book:
And now a stranger's privilege I took;
And, drawing to his side, to him did say,
"This morning gives us promise of a glorious day."

A gentle answer did the old Man make,
In courteous speech which forth he slowly drew:
And him with further words I thus bespake,
"What occupation do you there pursue?
This is a lonesome place for one like you."
Ere he replied, a flash of mild surprise
Broke from the sable orbs of his yet-vivid eyes.

His words came feebly, from a feeble chest,
But each in solemn order followed each,
With something of a lofty utterance drest—
Choice word and measured phrase, above the reach
Of ordinary men; a stately speech;
Such as grave Livers do in Scotland use,
Religious men, who give to God and man their dues.

He told, that to these waters he had come
To gather leeches, being old and poor:
Employment hazardous and wearisome!
And he had many hardships to endure:
From pond to pond he roamed, from moor to moor;
Housing, with God's good help, by choice or chance;
And in this way he gained an honest maintenance.

The old Man still stood talking by my side;
But now his voice to me was like a stream
Scarce heard; nor word from word could I divide;
And the whole body of the Man did seem
Like one whom I had met with in a dream;
Or like a man from some far region sent,
To give me human strength, by apt admonishment.

My former thoughts returned: the fear that kills;
And hope that is unwilling to be fed;
Cold, pain, and labour, and all fleshly ills;
And mighty Poets in their misery dead.
—Perplexed, and longing to be comforted,
My question eagerly did I renew,
"How is it that you live, and what is it you do?"

He with a smile did then his words repeat;
And said that, gathering leeches, far and wide
He travelled; stirring thus about his feet
The waters of the pools where they abide.
"Once I could meet with them on every side;
But they have dwindled long by slow decay;
Yet still I persevere, and find them where I may."

While he was talking thus, the lonely place,
The old Man's shape, and speech—all troubled me:
In my mind's eye I seemed to see him pace
About the weary moors continually,
Wandering about alone and silently.
While I these thoughts within myself pursued,
He, having made a pause, the same discourse renewed.

And soon with this he other matter blended,
Cheerfully uttered, with demeanour kind,
But stately in the main; and, when he ended,
I could have laughed myself to scorn to find
In that decrepit Man so firm a mind.
"God," said I, "be my help and stay secure;
I'll think of the Leech-gatherer on the lonely moor!"

Poem source - Poetry Foundation

Sunday, March 18, 2018

Expansion of Idea - Service To Man is Service to God



Today's world is just striving for the benefit of self, not for others. Majority of the people currently either serve themselves or serve the almighty. Selfishness and greed has plagued the entire world due to which humans have forgotten the cause of humanity. The important thing that humans do not realize is that God is not pleased by offering delicacies or prayers. On the contrary, he would be pleased if humans become useful to the needy or even feed the starving.

According to great philosopher Swami Vivekananda, 'In every God there is an individual and in every individual there is God.' This quote simplifies the complexity of the human thinking towards religion. People should willingly donate items to various charities, non profit organizations and to people who genuinely need them rather than temples where it could just get wasted. By doing such great deed, they indirectly serve God and offer their prayers to him. Such a perception should be imbibed in every individual's mind so that the world becomes a better place to live. Instead of offering gifts in form of food and clothing to temples, one can distribute such goods to the needy, who would be thankful. Such vote of thanks from the heart of a needy person serves far better as a blessing than one you think you may get from a temple.

The hypothesis for our direct service to God has been accurately defined by various philosophers. As a result, ' Service to man is service to God.'

Saturday, March 17, 2018

Expansion of Idea - Dreamers Create A World Of Their Own



The world one dreams of is far better than the real world we live in. Our dreams allow us to create a world of our own where exists happiness, excitement and success. This little world of our own imagination which we dream, keep us content and allows us to stay away from our real problems. Dreams allow us to live in a world of hope and possibilities which inspire us to go on. What would we do without our dreams!

Dream plays a pivotal role in our life. We enjoy dreaming. This different world where our dreams take us, allow us to escape the harsh realities. Though dreams don't last long yet this small escapade from our real world do work out as a stress-buster. Dreams are the reason some people have managed to think out of the box. Dreams define you. Most of the inventions and discoveries we witness today are results of such dreams. A writer plots his story in his dreams and turns it out in his best fiction ever which may be relative from person to person.

One who dreams, remains happy in his own world where there are thrills and thoughts of happiness. Dreams are something you can look forward to when you are about to sleep. Yes! we do have to wake up after that and get back to the real world. But that is the whole point. Dreams allow dreamers to go on and fight to make it happen. Once you get back to the real world, try and work towards making the dream world real. And thus one can say that, 'Dreamers create a world of their own'. 

Friday, March 16, 2018

Expansion of Idea - Knowledge is Power



One can gain power through knowledge. Knowledge of something allows one to become powerful. It could be anything you are good at. A particular talent defines a person's skills in that area. Any specialization could help one overcome boundaries and attain success. Enough knowledge of something or anything can make a person dominate over others in his area of expertise.

A person who has acquired skills in any domain is self-sufficient enough to conduct his duties and affairs efficiently. Same could be said about a painter who knows how to get his work done, or a student who is well-read and is respected by his fellow students and teachers; or even a farmer who has knowledge of his farm and the climate. Such skilled personnel can maneuver their tasks seamlessly without any help from others. That is the case of an individual who acquires knowledge about something or anything he feels is important for him.

An avid reader gains knowledge through his reading and has his own speculations about the things happening around him. A person with knowledge does not believe in superstitions or beliefs which are presented to him but are not supported with real facts. Hence on the basis of his knowledge he could eradicate superstition from people's mind and create awareness among them. Such people with great knowledge have the power to become great leaders. Power of knowledge could make this leader respectable by his followers. They would look up to him for ideas and suggestions. But the same could not be said about a leader who himself lacks knowledge and is not well-read. And hence one can say that 'Knowledge is Power'.

Thursday, March 15, 2018

Don't Quit Poem

The poem 'Don't Quit' is a beautiful, motivational poem which inspires us to keep going even when we are worried about the obstacles and feel like giving up. The poet of this poem is quite unknown. It is said that this poem was written by Edgar A. Guest and was originally renamed as 'Keep Going'. But this poem is also attributed to be the work of John Greenleaf Whittier or even William Murray Angus. Truth about the author of this poem still remains a mystery, yet one cannot deny that this poem is a beautiful piece of work. 

Don't Quit

         -By Unknown

When things go wrong, as they sometimes will,
When the road you’re trudging seems all uphill,
When the funds are low and the debts are high,
And you want to smile, but you have to sigh,
When care is pressing you down a bit-
Rest if you must, but don’t you quit.

Life is queer with its twists and turns,
As every one of us sometimes learns,
And many a failure turns about
When he might have won had he stuck it out.
Don’t give up though the pace seems slow -
You may succeeded with another blow.

Often the goal is nearer than
It seems to a faint and faltering man;
Often the struggler has given up
When he might have captured the victor’s cup;
And he learned too late when the night came down,
How close he was to the golden crown.

Success is failure turned inside out -
The silver tint in the clouds of doubt,
And you never can tell how close you are,
It might be near when it seems afar;
So stick to the fight when you’re hardest hit -
It’s when things seem worst that you must not quit.

Wednesday, March 14, 2018

Expansion of Idea - Failures Are The Stepping Stones To Success



To achieve success one has to face failure. Success is achievable only when we walk upon the path of failure. Each and everyone has to go through this stage where they have to face failures. Each of us wants to be successful, but not all of us get success in the first try. But does that mean that it is the end of the  world? Does that mean we should give up on our dream and go back to the life we do not wish to live? Definitely we should not give up. 'No' should be not be the answer for such circumstances.

Failure teaches us how to achieve success. Those who can face failure with a smiling face can only achieve success. Because they have the courage to face challenges and use failures as stepping stone to attain success. Determination of a person play main role in an individual's life. If you have determination and believe in yourself then nothing is impossible. One should not be demotivated by the failure that he faces. We are not good enough in everything we do and we do have our own faults. Embracing faults and trying to overcome it requires great courage and strength. Reaching the goals after overcoming the obstacles is the biggest victory in itself. The equilibrium of failure and success is what makes our life wonderful. So one should never give up, but make it a point to fight the failures in order to achieve success. Because as it is rightly said, failures are the stepping stones to success. 

Tuesday, March 13, 2018

How to Make a pH Indicator at Home

As summer vacation nears, parents wonder how to keep kids busy at home. The best way to keep children busy during vacations at home is by allowing them to conduct kid-friendly experiments that not only allow them to pass time, but also teach them new things. Science for kids is an enjoyable and great learning experience. Science can be well-learned not just by reading textbooks but by experimental method. pH Indicator can be made at home with material easily available. With parent's supervision and help, a child can enjoy this scientific experiment at home and have fun.

Materials for making pH Indicator


Filter paper
Beetroot - 1
Mineral water
Strainer
Paint brush


Method for making pH Indicator


1


Peel the beetroot and grate it. Place the grated beetroot in a vessel half filled with water. Boil the water and simmer for 20 minutes on a low flame. Allow it to cool.

2


Filter the beetroot water with the help of a strainer. Collect the water in a tray and throw away the beetroot remains.

3


Take filter paper strips and dip in the beetroot water tray. Allow it to soak till uniformly colored.

4


Your pH Indicator is ready.

Take the Test


You can take the pH Indicator and start testing on various kind of liquids such as lemon juice, sour milk, milk, or even vinegar. To carry on the test, take the paint brush and dip in the liquid of your choice. Now with that brush dip paint on the pH indicator. The color on the pH indicator would change depending on whether the given liquid is an alkaline or acidic.

Tip


You can be innovative with various solutions instead of beet root for making pH indicator. Some other liquids include grape juice or even turmeric solution.

How it Works


The pigment present in the beetroot, known as Anthocyanin acts as the pH indicator and changes it's color according to the presence of alkaline or acidic nature of the liquids tested.

Monday, March 12, 2018

Expansion of Idea - A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words



The essence of a particular written matter can be improved if it is converted to a virtually relaxing object. This same aspects directly corresponds with a picture. A picture is a virtual representation of any event which has occurred or can take place in the possible future.

The synopsis of a particular incident by a painting is infinite. A painting also provides various perspectives to a particular event or a situation. Let us take the example of 'The Jewel of Paintings' which is the 'Last Supper', which is  a 'Magnum Opus' of Leonardo Da Vinci. When art or historical aficionados glance at the picture, many perspectives of the Last Supper start generating in the brain. These perceptions can be greatly varied and may describe the entire plot in different ways. This can be considered the 'alchemy' of paintings. They have the ability to hypnotize an individual and trap him into thinking about that particular painting.

Before the concept of painting or other form of it was invented, matter was only available in the written form. As a result, imagining a particular scenario has a limitation and were not analyzed clearly. However, the invention of paintings in the form of arts paved the way for clarity of information. Individuals were able to understand concepts more clearly. As a result, a picture is really a divine art form. By this, I conclude that 'A picture is worth a thousand words'.

Sunday, March 11, 2018

Expansion of Idea - Playing Safe Gets One Nowhere



Most of us believe in the policy of playing safe. As kids we felt safe holding our parent's hand while walking or crossing the road. Safety keeps us at peace. The thought of getting into trouble does not go well with most of us. As kids too we were taught to play safe. Our instinct tells us to ensure our safety first then think of everything else. As we grow as adults, we take this teaching very seriously. We rather prefer playing safe then taking risks as we fear of failure.

But consider what would have happened if none of us had the courage of taking risks. If the stone-age man had not taken risk and continued to live in the provided circumstances, what would have happened to our development as a human being. If he had not shown the courage to try out new things and learn new techniques, we may have ended up dwelling in the caves even today. Similarly consider the risks scientists take for the development of mankind, or astronauts take to learn more about the space and life around us. They do know that every step towards the unknown involves risk and threat to one's life but unless they go for it, how would they achieve success and gain new parameters in life.

All the progress that we see today, is a result of someone somewhere taking on certain challenges and risks for the betterment of the society. Agreed that, playing safe would keep you away from dangers and certain risks in life. Yet playing safe would also make your life dull and stagnate your growth. And hence one has to agree that 'playing safe would get one nowhere'.

Saturday, March 10, 2018

A Complaint Poem By William Wordsworth

A Complaint is one of William Wordsworth's romantic works which deals with the loss and grief. In this poem the poet reveals his loss and suffering that he has gone through, - loss of someone he cared the most, may be a friend, or someone he loved. This loss has led his heart through a great mental distress and left him broken..



A Complaint

       - By William Wordsworth


There is a change—and I am poor;
Your love hath been, nor long ago,
A fountain at my fond heart's door,
Whose only business was to flow;
And flow it did; not taking heed
Of its own bounty, or my need.

What happy moments did I count!
Blest was I then all bliss above!
Now, for that consecrated fount
Of murmuring, sparkling, living love,
What have I? shall I dare to tell?
A comfortless and hidden well.

A well of love—it may be deep—
I trust it is,—and never dry:
What matter? if the waters sleep
In silence and obscurity.
—Such change, and at the very door
Of my fond heart, hath made me poor.

Friday, March 9, 2018

Expansion of Idea - Honest Is The Best Policy



Being untruthful always lands you in trouble. You have to remember every little lie you speak, every time you are being scrutinized. And remembering each and every lie can never be easy. But at the same time, remembering truth is never a problem. Because you do not have to remember it. It always exists in your mind just the way it occurred. Maintaining a lie on the other hand could be worrisome. You never know what could be asked to you, and how you would maintain the same answer every time. A dishonest person has to make special efforts to remember his deceits.

On the other hand a honest person can always be free from all the worries. It always pays to be honest. Though at times we are too tempted to lie, but still how hard we try, truth can never be hidden, it always resurfaces even though you try hard to keep it under wraps. People will respect you for your honesty. A honest friend is more trustworthy than a dishonest one. At the end of the day, if you are facing troubles and wish to speak to someone, given a choice you would always turn to that one honest friend you have. Though honest people are said to be a bit frank and sarcastic, their honesty is still respected and trusted. Honesty brings peace, grace and dignity to your life. And hence it could be said that 'Honesty is the best policy'.


Thursday, March 8, 2018

Essay - Should all School Subjects be Compulsory or Should You Have a Choice

No more school days are an enjoyable time the way it was a while ago! Earlier school days bought smile on the student's face. But it does not happen any more. Nowadays the activities that the kids spend time doing in school are not at all enjoyable or interesting. How can a student enjoy time in school, when he is made to spend time with dull and boring subjects.

Student  should get a choice about what activity he wishes to do. If a student enjoys subjects like math then he should be allowed to enjoy his math sessions. On the other hand he should not be forced to involve in activities such as painting or languages. There are children who enjoy music more than subjects like mathematics. They avoid homework for such subjects and always score less marks. Hence the whole compulsion of studying subjects which one is not interested in is beyond my understanding.

We are all aware that a person would always do better in things he loves doing. There are many in this world who choose their passion as their profession and enjoy every minute working on what they love to do. Like great writers or poets or even painters who enjoy what they do. But consider people who do not get such choice and end up choosing a profession which they know they do not belong to. Such wrong career choices can lead a person to a disappointing life.

And hence every student should be given a choice to study what he enjoys the most. For example, if a student is interested in pursuing writing, then school should make a provision to hone up his writing and language skills and guide him to get better. If a student is interested in painting or drawing then such classes should be arranged for his benefits.

Should this not be the benefit of living in a democratic country, where each and every individual gets to enjoy his or her freedom. Thus schools should make an attempt in considering this matter and giving every student a choice of choosing subjects as per his taste and not force him to study subjects he is not interested in. 

Wednesday, March 7, 2018

What is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Don't we wonder why working for long hours on computer give us numb or painful wrists. Same thing happens when we play video games for a long time. The reason our wrists undergo severe pain, numbness or a tingling sensation at times is due to a certain condition called Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, commonly called CTS is a condition which occurs when the tunnel of bones and wrist's ligaments become narrow. This narrowed tunnel is responsible for the tingling sensation or numbness in our hand, as the narrowed tunnel pinches the nerve. This numbness and tingling sensation caused by the carpal tunnel syndrome can be felt on an individual's hand, especially around the thumb and first three fingers.

What Causes Carpal Tunnel Syndrome


The tunnel that gets affected due to the carpal tunnel syndrome is located under the skin of our wrist and is known as the carpal tunnel. The bottom and insides of the tunnel are formed by the wrist bones. The top of the carpal tunnel is covered with ligament. Nine tendons, that join a muscle with some other part of the body, and one median nerve passes through this carpal tunnel from our forearm to the hand. These tendons connect muscles to our bones  and thus help our hand to efficient maneuvering of the fingers and thumb. The median nerve passes through the tunnel and reaches the hand. There is very little space for the nine tendons and the median nerve to pass through. Repetitive movement such as typing or continuous movement of the wrist may result in swelling of wrist. This swelling pinches the nerve resulting in numbness or tingling sensation. One may even experience severe pain. This is the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Thus the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome include numbness, severe pain and tingling sensation in your wrist.

Tuesday, March 6, 2018

How is Bone Marrow Formed

Bone marow
Bone marrow is a flexible, spongy tissue located within the bone interiors. This semi-solid tissue is in a jelly form and helps to produce blood cells and also protect the innermost core of the bone. The average weight of bone marrow is 4% of the individual's body weight. This gelatinous tissue fills the cavity of the bone. The bone marrow is found in the spine, hip and the shoulder bones of an adult.The richest source of bone marrow cell can be found in spine as well as hip of an individual.

Bone marrow consists of two type of cells - the Hematopoietic stem cells, which produce the blood cells and the Stromal stem cells, which can produce the cartilage, fat and the bone. Hemopoiesis is the process in which the the blood cell is produced. There are two types of bone marrow, one is the red marrow which contains the hematopoietic stem cells. The red blood cells, platelets as well as most of the white blood cells arise in red bone marrow. The red marrow mainly exists in flat bones of an individual's body such as hip bone, skull, ribs, vertebrae  and also in shoulder blades. Similarly the other type of bone marrow is the yellow marrow which houses the stroma stem cells.The presence of higher amount of fat cells give the yellow marrow it's colour. Some of the white blood cells are also developed in yellow marrow.

The formation of bone marrow in an individual takes place even before his birth. It's formation is similar to that of the formation of other organ's or tissue in one's body. Usually during birth the bone marrow is red which gets converted into yellow as one ages. Bone marrow is considered as an life saving agent for patients with severe blood loss, because the body has the tendency to convert the yellow marrow into red marrow in order to increase the blood cell production. 

Monday, March 5, 2018

What is an eBook

An eBook is an electronic version of a printed book.The eBook is a any printed book in a digital form which may include text and images.  In today's era of digitization, eBook is the most crucial want of the day. With everything made available at the touch of your finger, traditional reading has been switched into an 'e-mode'; where we get to read any printed book as a eBook on a computer or a tablet, mobile phone or even best, e-reader.  Nowadays thousands and thousands of title could be read with eBook, that had once been printed on paper. Be it fiction, non-fiction, history, recipes, stories, study material, reference books or even classics - everything can be read with an eBook.





How is an eBook Produced?


To produce an eBook, usually one needs an existing published paper book or hard copies. Robotic book scanners are used to scan these paper books without damaging the original print edition. These robotic book scanners can scan book quickly and efficiently. These scanners help produce set of image files which can then be converted into text format by Optical Character Recognition Programme (OCR). This programme thus helps the mechanical or electronic conversion of these scanned images into a computer readable text. And thus forms an eBook which exactly looks exactly like book only in digital form.

Advantage of eBook over Paper Books


An eBook has a superiority over paper books. This is so because while printing paperbacks or hardcovers of a particular book, huge amount of paper needs to be produced, for which innumerable trees are cut down. It is said that to make just one ton of paper, over 24 trees need to be cut. Then in case, a book that is printed contain printing errors, the books are destroyed before reaching the shelves. That is a huge wastage of paper. Many printed books that do not make a good sale are usually destroyed or recycled. It also takes about seven gallons of water to produce one printed book, while it takes only two cups of water to produce a digital book. Hence not just trees but water is also wasted while producing paper books.

eBooks have a great advantage over the paper books, as

- eBooks save the transportation costs for shipping books.

- eBooks can help preserve books.

- eBooks help saving trees and thus avoid deforestation.

- eBooks are portable and can help one carry an entire library along with him.

- eBooks are much cheaper to produce as compared to paper books.

- eBooks offer free downloads of few books or if chargeable are much cheaper than the paperback or hardcover editions.

- eBooks promises convenient reading with its varied features such as change of fonts, in-built light, change of style, bookmarking, highlighting and more, thus offering a personalized reading experience.

- eBooks help in conversion of languages with such features made available.

- eBooks such as Kindle offer assistance with word-wise enabled features to understand meanings of words.

- With immense storage space, eBooks allows us to store as many books as possible.

- eBooks allows readers to rate a book and suggest other readers if the book is a good read.





Environmental Footprint of an eBook


Environmental footprint is the impact any activity or a product or a person has on the earth's environment system. This includes e-waste. As per research a paper book can create 7.5 kg of carbon dioxide whereas an iPad or Kindle can create nearly 130 kg 168 kg of carbon dioxide respectively. Once a Kindle is bought by a reader, he or she would start downloading as many books as possible in order to make up for the carbon dioxide during it's use. Use of electricity for charging the e-devices also needs to be taken under consideration. 

Sunday, March 4, 2018

Fascinating Facts about Dwarka City

Dwarka is a Hindu Pilgrimage city located in the state of Gujarat in India. Dwarka includes herself in the Char Dham Pilgrimage which is a highly sacred pilgrimage for Hindus and help them attain moksha. The other four cities, part of the Char Dham Pilgrimage include Badrinath, Puri and Rameshwaram. Dwarka is also one of the Sapta Puris. Sapta Puri means the seven holy cities of India, every Hindu must visit. The seven cities in Sapta Puri include Ayudhya, Mathura, Varanasi, Kanchipuram, Ujjain, Haridwar and Dwarka. Dwarka literally means 'gateway to heaven'. This city was build by Lord Krishna. It was considered to be his capital city. Lord Krishna along with the other Yadavas are said to have spent most of his time in Dwarka.


City of Dwarka


The Existence of Dwarka City


According to the Hindu Mythology, the city of Dwarka submerged in the Arabian Sea, not once but six times. The present city of Dwarka is considered to be the seventh such city built in the same area. The Marine Archaeology Unit of the National Institute of Oceanography has been engaged in the offshore excavation and exploration of the legendary Dwarka City since 1983. The boulders on which the city walls were erected, were found in this excavation which proved that the land indeed was reclaimed by the sea. Dwarka finds it's mention in various ancient texts, especially in Mahabharata. In Mahabharata, Dwarka has been mentioned as a well-fortified and prosperous city, which again proved it's existence.

Fascinating Facts About Dwarka City


1. It is believed that worshiping Lord Krishna in Dwarka can help you get rid of your sins and help you attain moksha.

2. Because it is believed that Lord Krishna lived in Dwarka as a Prince, the city of Dwarka worships him in the same mood. The idol of Krishna, also referred as the Dwarkadhish is dressed in extravagance.

3. The Dwarkadhish deity holds conch, club, disc and lotus flower in his four hands and each of these are covered in silver.

4. The compound of the Dwarkadhish Temple include many small shrines, namely Lakshmi Temple, Radhika Temple, Balarama Temple, Pradyumna Temple, Anirrudha Temple, Satyabhama Temple and Purshottama Vishnu Temple.

5. The present Dwarkadhish Temple was built in the sixteenth century.

6. The original temple of Dwarka was said to be built by Vajranabha, the grandson of Lord Krishna.

7. The temple of Dwarkadhish is built using soft limestone. The temple consists of a sanctum, vestibule and a big rectangular hall with porches on three sides.

8. The Dwarkadhish Temple has two entry points, known to be the Swarga Dwar or heaven gateways. There is one exit point for the pilgrims which is known as the Moksha Dwar.

9. The amazing discoveries and explorations by marine archaeologists over the four decades pointed to the fact that the remains of the city found over the years dated back to the Mahabharat Era.

10. Thousands of devotees and pilgrims from all over the world gather at the Dwarka City to celebrate Janmashtami in full swing every year.

Saturday, March 3, 2018

Acceptance Poem By Robert Frost

Acceptance is a sonnet by Robert Frost. This beautiful poem implies about accepting facts of life, whether its an event or a threat to one's existence... what is important is to accept it as part and parcel of life and just live hoping to be safe and sound to see the next day.


Acceptance


                     - By Robert Frost

When the spent sun throws up its rays on cloud
And goes down burning into the gulf below,
No voice in nature is heard to cry aloud
At what has happened. Birds, at least must know
It is the change to darkness in the sky.

Murmuring something quiet in her breast,
One bird begins to close a faded eye;
Or overtaken too far from his nest,
Hurrying low above the grove, some waif
Swoops just in time to his remembered tree.

At most he thinks or twitters softly, ''Safe!
Now let the night be dark for all of me.
Let the night be too dark for me to see
Into the future. Let what will be, be.''

Friday, March 2, 2018

How Are Valleys Formed?

Valleys are the low lying areas present between two hills or two mountains. Valleys are usually formed near water bodies such as rivers and hence they are dense with vegetation and have great soil fertility. When water bodies such as rivers flow through mountains or hills they wear out the rock and the soil thus creating grooves within. These grooves over a period of time get deeper and deeper causing big dents within the mountain. These grooves are usually V-shaped or U-shaped and the curve deepens over a period of time to form valleys.


U-shaped Valley

The formation of valleys usually depend upon the speed of the flow of the water. Faster the flow, deeper and wider the valley. When glaciers form valleys they are called glacial valleys. The shape of glacial valley is U-shape. However when a valley is formed due to soil erosion it is usually V-shaped and these valleys are know as rift valleys. Due to it's rich soil fertility and dense vegetation, valleys can cater to civilizations. The valleys also tend to offer a favorable climate for living. And hence many such civilizations had known to flourish in the valleys. One such known civilization of valley is the Indus Valley Civilization on the Indus River. The world's deepest valley is the Kali Gandaki River in Nepal. It is known to lie between two Himalayan Peaks namely, Dhaulagiri and Annapurna which are 8000 meter high respectively.

Thursday, March 1, 2018

Why Do We Have Different Skin Color?

We often wonder why we and all around us differ so much when it comes to skin color. The color of the human skin varies almost from light translucent to almost black. All these wide varied colors that we human being have come from a particular pigment known as melanin. The type and amount of melanin present in an individual's body defines his or her color.

The color of every individual is more or less affected by the presence of four pigments in the body - melanin, oxygenated hemoglobin, reduced hemoglobin and carotene. However melanin stands out as the most powerful of all and gives us the color that we have. Melanin pigment are produced by special cells known as melanocytes which are found in the epidermis of our skin. Genes control the production of melanin cells in an individual body. The melanin producing cells in every adult ranges from 60,000 in each square inch of the skin. Few melanocytes mean less pigment which means lighter skin. Hence we have different skin color depending upon the production of melanin.

Besides melanin one more factor that affects one's skin color is haemoglobin. Haemoglobin combines with oxygen to produce the rosy complexion which is often referred as a sign of good health. Reduced haemoglobin causes anemia which makes a person appear pale. 
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